In this day and age of endless, obsessive and rancorous debate, and nervous breakdowns, occasioned by Russian interference in the America electoral process, a sane person inquires into similar behavior on the part of the U.S., wondering if US deserves to play the part of poor, innocent victim. Results of the inquiry, being previously well recorded, are sobering...
The U.S. has a long and stunning history of attempting, sometimes subtly, sometimes violently, to influence foreign presidential elections. A 2016 study by Dov Levin* found that, among 938 global elections examined, the United States and Russia combined had involved themselves in about one out of nine (11%), 68% of those covertly. The same study found that "on average, an electoral intervention in favor of one side contesting the election will increase its vote share by about 3 percent," an effect large enough to have potentially changed the results in seven out of 14 U.S. presidential elections occurring after 1960. According to the study, the U.S. intervened in 81 foreign elections between 1946 and 2000, while the Soviet Union or Russia intervened in 36. A 2018 study by Levin found that the electoral interventions determined in "many cases" the identity of the winner. The study also found suggestive evidence that the interventions increased the risk of democratic breakdown in the targeted states.
*Dov H. Levin. Assistant Professor, Department of Politics and Public Administration, The University of Hong Kong. Author: “A Vote for Freedom? The Effects of Partisan Electoral Interventions on Regime Type.” in the Journal of Conflict Resolution.
September 7, 2016
Bags of cash delivered to a Rome hotel for favored Italian candidates. Scandalous stories leaked to foreign newspapers to swing an election in Nicaragua. Millions of pamphlets, posters and stickers printed to defeat an incumbent in Serbia.
The long arm of Vladimir Putin? Nah, just a small sample of the United States’ subversions of foreign elections.
Anti-Russia, too? Sure. Aleksei Navalny (Russian lawyer, right-wing activist a few years older than Venezuelan Guaido), though arrested and jailed numerous times, this political opponent of Vladimir V. Putin, had received grants from the National Endowment for Democracy. In fact, an organization employing him received one $23,000 grant from the endowment in 2006, which he used to set up his anti-corruption foundation. Navalny, a Washington favorite, was found guilty in February of 2017 of embezzling $500,000 worth of timber from
Russian state-owned timber company Kirovles while working as a
volunteer. Prior to that, Navalny was convicted of defrauding $440,000
from a cosmetics company in 2014. Yet, despite all that, according to the New York Times, “Mr. Navalny is a charismatic anti-corruption campaigner
And Putin. Is he a demon in 2016, or is he just exercising a bit of payback? God knows Washington has made life difficult for Russia in recent years, and never missed an opportunity to paint Putin in a bad light.
Following is a short list of US interventions in other countrys' Democracies etc. as compiled by political scientist Levin.
Even after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the U.S. continued its interventions abroad, including elections in Israel, former Czechoslovakia, and again Russia in 1996, Levin found. Since 2000, the U.S. has attempted to sway elections in Ukraine (Paul Manafort, John McCain and John Kerry), Kenya, Lebanon, and Afghanistan, among others. Currently, Venezuela is the shining example of American attempt to vassalize a country whose Democracy doesn't meet the approval of Washington, i.e., a country who refuses Washington corporate unfettered access to its oil and gold. Without Russia and China, Venezuela would by now be in ruins, as are Syria and Yemen. Yemen. America has maintained military involvement in Yemen since 2003, 16 years and counting.
This pretty map shows the results of a 2013 (pre-Trump) WIN/Gallup International survey asking people which country they felt was the greatest threat to world peace.
According to the survey results:
The US was the overwhelming choice (24% of respondents) for the country that represents the greatest threat to peace in the world today. This was followed by Pakistan (8%), China (6%), North Korea, Israel and Iran (5%).
Respondents in Russia (54%), China (49%) and Bosnia (49%) were the most fearful of the US as a threat.